(För insyn: 18 000 svenska UFO-rapporter, n.d.)ACO Association A.I. invokes peer review groups and networks in USA standards of quality but also embraces a more inclusive definition in our various undergraduate studies. 1
(För insyn: 18 000 svenska UFO-rapporter, n.d.)ACO Association A.I. invokes peer review groups and networks in USA standards of quality but also embraces a more inclusive definition in our various undergraduate studies.
Ufology is the study of reports, visual records, physical evidence, and other phenomena related to unidentified flying objects. UFOs have been subject to various investigations over the years by governments, independent groups, and scientists. However, ufology, as a field, is rejected by modern academia and is considered a pseudoscience.
document released under the Freedom Of Information Act. The original format has been preserved as much as possible .
Auth by CS, USAF
PART TWO 27 Apr 1949
AIR BRIEF – SPECIAL STUDY
UNIDENTIFIED AERIAL OBJECTS
During the past six months very few reports have appeared in the press on the subject of flying saucers. However, recent allegations on the radio and in the press that the saucers are actually Soviet guided missiles find no real support in the continuing, exhaustive investigations and analyses which have been conducted as project “Grudge” (formerly project “Sign”) by the USAF Air Materiel Command. Realistic treatments of the subject will appear this week in the Saturday Evening Post.
A total of 294 incidents involving unidentified aerial objects have been recorded. The majority of these are domestic observations but there are many reports from foreign sources. Data on unidentified aerial objects places them in several distinct groups; disc, spherical, elliptical, or cylindrical shaped objects, winged objects, and light phenomena. The extreme lack of accurate observed details and the unpredictable occurrence of incidents have made positive identification difficult. However, extensive checks by field investigators, project personnel and such agencies as Air Weather Service and the Rand Corporation in addition to the study of incidents by specialists such as Dr. G. E. Valley (USAF Scientific Advisory Board) and Dr. Hynek, Ohio State University astro-physicist, point to the following conclusions:
- The majority of reported incidents are reliable to the extent that they have involved actual sighting of some object or light phenomena.
- The majority of reported incidents have been caused by misidentification of weather balloons, high altitude balloons with lights or electronic equipment, meteors, bolides, and celestial bodies.
- There are numerous reports from reliable and competent observers for which a conclusive explanation has not been possible. Some of these involve descriptions which would place them in the category of new manifestations of probable natural phenomena, but others involve con- figurations and described performance which might conceivably represent an advanced aerodynamical development. A few unexplained incidents surpass these limits of credibility.
Representative of an unexplained incident which has credible features, but which has defied definite proof or denial, was the sighting by two
(This paper was presented to the DCS/O Staff Meeting on 27 April.)
Eastern Air Lines pilots in the air near Montgomery, Alabama, of an object resembling a V-2 in horizontal flight. While the cigar or torpedo-shaped body represents an efficient form for the fuselage of an airplane or of a guided missile, it has not been used as a primary lift-producing surface. It is estimated, however, that a fuselage of the dimensions reported by the Eastern Air Lines pilots, could support a load comparable to the weight of an aircraft of this size at speeds in the subsonic range. Although the craft sighted by these pilots was re- ported to be without wings and fins, it is possible that such a craft could be equipped with extensible wings for take-off and landing. The propulsion system of this type of vehicle would appear to be by jet or rocket, and the specific fuel consumption of such engines for this type craft would be rather high. This, coupled with the fact that aerodynamic lift on such a body would be accompanied by high drag, places a serious limitation on the range of this type of craft for any particular gross weight. If this type of unidentified aerial object has extremely long range, a method of propulsion far in advance of presently known engines would be required. It is believed unlikely that this and similar unexplained incidents represent a foreign craft. It seems improbable that a foreign power would expose any superior aerial weapon by a prolonged ineffectual penetration of the United States, and there is no basis on which to speculate that advanced civilizations exist outside the earth and are responsible for any such activity.
Recently, the repeated occurrence of green fireball phenomena in New Mexico was given special attention by Dr. Joseph Kaplan, Member of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board. This phenomena has caused considerable concern on the part of Hq. Fourth Army, and has occupied the interests of Dr. Lincoln LaPaz of the University of New Mexico. Dr. LaPaz believes that the phenomena are not meteorites. Because of Dr. LaPaz’ outstanding ability for accurate observation and his experience in identification of meteoric phenomena, Dr. Kaplan expressed the belief that the green fireball phenomena should be further investigated. Dr. Kaplan’s views were discussed with Dr. Theodore von Karman, Chairman of the USAF Scientific Advisory Board, who feels that the problem might belong more properly in the field of upper atmosphere research than the field of intelligence.
Investigations continue in an effort to find definite explanations for the many unidentified aerial objects which have been reported during the past two years.
SECRET (I touched a UFO: ex-air force pilot, n.d.) (I touched a UFO: ex-air force pilot, n.d.)
document released under the Freedom Of Information Act. The original format has been preserved as much as possible .
Auth by CS, USAF
PART TWO 27 Apr 1949
AIR BRIEF – SPECIAL STUDY
The term derives from UFO, which is pronounced as an acronym, and the suffix -logy, which comes from the Ancient Greek λογία (logiā). According to the Oxford English Dictionary, one of the first documented uses of the word ufology can be found in the Times Literary Supplement from January 23, 1959, in which it writes, “The articles, reports, and bureaucratic studies which have been written about this perplexing visitant constitute ‘ufology’.” This article was printed eight years after Edward J. Ruppelt of the United States Air Force (USAF) coined the word UFO in 1951.
The modern UFO mythology has three traceable roots: the late 19th century “mystery airships” reported in the newspapers of western United States, “foo fighters” reported by Allied airmen during World War II, and the Kenneth Arnold “flying saucer” sighting near Mt. Rainier, Washington on June 24, 1947. UFO reports between “The Great Airship Wave” and the Arnold sighting were limited in number compared to the post-war period: notable cases include reports of “ghost fliers” in Europe and North America during the 1930s and the numerous reports of “ghost rockets” in Scandinavia (mostly Sweden) from May to December 1946. Media hype in the late 1940s and early 1950s following the Arnold sighting brought the concept of flying saucers to the public audience. As the public’s preoccupation in UFOs grew, along with the number of reported sightings, the United States military began to take notice of the phenomenon. The UFO explosion of the early post-war era coincides with the escalation of the Cold War and the Korean War. The U.S. military feared that secret aircraft of the Soviet Union, possibly developed from captured German technology, were behind the reported sightings. If correct, the craft causing the sightings were thus of importance to national security and in need of systematic investigation. By 1952, however, the official US government interest in UFOs began to fade as the USAF projects Sign and Grudge concluded, along with the CIA’s Robertson Panel that UFO reports indicated no direct threat to national security. The government’s official research into UFOs ended with the publication of the Condon Committee report in 1969, which concluded that the study of UFOs in the past 21 years had achieved little, if anything, and that further extensive study of UFO sightings was unwarranted. It also recommended the termination of the USAF special unit Project Blue Book. As the U.S. government ceased officially studying UFO sightings, the same became true for most governments of the world. A notable exception is France, which still maintains the GEIPAN, formerly known as GEPAN (1977–1988) and SEPRA (1988–2004), a unit under the French Space Agency CNES. During the Cold War, British, Canadian, Danish, Italian, and Swedish governments have each collected reports of UFO sightings. Britain’s Ministry of Defence ceased accepting any new reports as of 2010.
Status as a field
Ufology has generally not been embraced by academia as a scientific field of study, even though UFOs were, during the late 1940s and early 1950s, the subject of large-scale scientific studies. The lack of acceptance of ufology by academia as a field of study means that people can claim to be “UFO researchers”, without the sorts of scientific consensus building and, in many cases peer review, that otherwise shape and influence scientific paradigms. Even among scientifically inclined UFO research efforts, data collecting is often done by amateur investigators. Famous mainstream scientists who have shown interest in the UFO phenomenon include Stanford physicist Peter A. Sturrock, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, computer scientist and astronomer Jacques F. Vallée, and University of Arizona meteorologist James E. McDonald.
As a pseudoscience
Ufology is characterized as a partial or total pseudoscience, which many ufologists reject. Pseudoscience is a term that classifies studies that are claimed to exemplify the methods and principles of science, but that do not adhere to an appropriate scientific method, lack supporting evidence, plausibility, falsifiability, or otherwise lack scientific status. Gregory Feist, an academic psychologist, proposes that ufology can be categorized as a pseudoscience because its adherents claim it to be a science while the scientific community denies that it is, and because the field lacks a cumulative scientific progress; ufology has not, in his view, advanced since the 1950s.
Scientific UFO research suffers from the fact that the phenomena under observation do not usually make predictable appearances at a time and place convenient for the researcher. Ufologist Diana Palmer Hoyt argues, The UFO problem seems to bear a closer resemblance to problems in meteorology than in physics. The phenomena are observed, occur episodically, are not reproducible, and in large part, are identified by statistical gathering of data for possible organization into patterns. They are not experiments that can be replicated at will at the laboratory bench under controlled conditions. On the other hand, skeptics have argued that UFOs are not a scientific problem at all, as there is no tangible physical evidence to study. Barry Markovsky argues that, under scrutiny by qualified investigators, the vast majority of UFO sightings turn out to have mundane explanations.
Developed in the 1970s, J. Allen Hynek’s original system of description divides sightings into six categories. It first separates sightings into distant- and close-encounter categories, arbitrarily setting five hundred feet as the cutoff point. It then subdivides these close and distant categories based on appearance or special features: •Nocturnal Lights (NL): Anomalous lights seen in the night sky. •Daylight Discs (DD): Any anomalous object, generally but not necessarily “discoidal”, seen in the distant daytime sky. •Radar/Visual cases (RV): Objects seen simultaneously by eye and on radar. Hynek also defined three close encounter (CE) subcategories: •CE1: Strange objects seen nearby but without physical interaction with the environment. •CE2: A CE1 case that leaves physical evidence, e.g. soil depressions, vegetation damage, radiations or causes electromagnetic interference. •CE3: CE1 or CE2 cases where occupants or entities are seen.
Ufology and UFO reports
In addition to UFO sightings, certain supposedly related phenomena are of interest to some in the field of ufology, including crop circles, cattle mutilations, and alien abductions and implants. Some ufologists have also promoted UFO conspiracy theories, including the alleged Roswell UFO Incident of 1947, the Majestic 12 documents, and UFO disclosure advocates. Skeptic Robert Sheaffer has accused ufology of having a “credulity explosion”. He claims a trend of increasingly sensational ideas steadily gaining popularity within ufology.
Surveys of scientists and amateur astronomers concerning UFOs
In 1973, Peter A. Sturrock conducted a survey among members of the San Francisco chapter of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, where 1175 questionnaires were mailed and 423 were returned, and found no consensus concerning the nature and scientific importance of the UFO phenomenon, with views ranging equally from “impossible” to “certain” in reply to the question, “Do UFOs represent a scientifically significant phenomenon?” In a later larger survey conducted among the members of the American Astronomical Society, where 2611 were questionnaires mailed and 1356 were returned, Sturrock found out that opinions were equally diverse, with 23% replying “certainly”, 30% “probably”, 27% “possibly”, 17% “probably not”, and 3% “certainly not”, to the question of whether the UFO problem deserves scientific study.
(Persinger & Derr, 1985)
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